Transport and communications in the United Kingdom

7x puncte

categorie: Engleza

nota: 10.00

nivel: Liceu

Until 1994 BR was divided into six administrative regions: London Midland, Western, Southern, Eastern, Anglia, and Scottish. In 1994, under the Railway Act 1993, it was restructured to allow for privatization from 1995. Track and train operations were separated. Railtrack, a government-owned company, was set up to operate all track and rail infrastructure. Freight operations were divided into thre[...]
DOWNLOAD REFERAT

Preview referat: Transport and communications in the United Kingdom

Until 1994 BR was divided into six administrative regions: London Midland, Western, Southern, Eastern, Anglia, and Scottish. In 1994, under the Railway Act 1993, it was restructured to allow for privatization from 1995. Track and train operations were separated. Railtrack, a government-owned company, was set up to operate all track and rail infrastructure. Freight operations were divided into three geographically based companies that were privatized in 1995. Passenger operations, which are also being opened up to the private sector through franchises for particular passenger routes, were restructured into 25 separate operating units within BR.

In 1995 franchises for the first passenger lines were awarded, with more planned to follow in 1996. In May 1996 Railtrack was privatized through a share issue. These moves to fully privatize BR have been highly contentious and have generated considerable criticism within Britain. In mid-1994, some 16,535 km (10,275 mi) of track were open for traffic in Great Britain; about 30 per cent of it was electrified. There was, in addition, some 408 km (254 mi) of track in London operated by London Underground Ltd. of which about 42 per cent is underground. The system is being extended with the construction of new lines in east and south-east London.

There are also urban rail systems in Glasgow, Liverpool, Tyne and Wear, and Manchester. In Northern Ireland, railway services are operated by the Northern Ireland Railway Company Ltd. Some 330 km (206 mi) of track were in use in the early 1990s. In the late 19th century work was begun on a tunnel beneath the English Channel. The project was abandoned and then revived in 1957. Work began again, but Britain halted the project in 1973 citing the immense cost. In 1987, however, work began again and a service tunnel was completed in 1990. The main Channel Tunnel, which is 50.4 km (32 mi) long, runs from Folkestone, England, to Calais, France.

It cost more than US$16 billion (AL10 billion), runs at an average depth of 40 m (132 ft) below the sea bed, and was completed in 1993. It was officially opened on May 6, 1994, when Queen Elizabeth II and French president Francois Mitterrand travelled through the tunnel. Freight services began later the same month, but full passenger services were not established for almost another year. British Airways was formed in 1974 by combining the two state-run airlines, British Overseas Airways Company (BOAC) and British European Airways. Privatized in 1987, British Airways is one of the world's leading airlines and operates the world's largest network of international scheduled services, travelling to some 155 destinations in 72 countries.
DOWNLOAD REFERAT
« mai multe referate din Engleza

CAUTA REFERAT

TRIMITE REFERAT CERE REFERAT
Referatele si lucrarile oferite de E-referate.ro au scop educativ si orientativ pentru cercetare academica.