The tower of London
I want my work to be a kind of guide for those who are interested in the history of this magnificent building.Anyway, as in its earliest days, a whole community lives within the Tower: mainly Tower officers and the families of the Yeoman Warders, and six ravens, whose presence in the Tower, according to an old superstition guarantees the kingdom from distraction.DOWNLOAD REFERAT
On Christmas Day 10[...]
On Christmas Day 10[...]
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On Christmas Day 1066 Duke of Normandy was crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey, some two months after his victory over the Saxon King Harold at Hastings. At once William ordered the building of fortifications to help secure London, the chief city of his new kingdom. One of these earth-and-timber castles was erected in the south-east corner of the Roman city walls, to command the River Thames as well as the city. To close off the angle between the walls and complete the bailey, or yard, of the new castle, the Normans made a ditch and bank surmounted by a palisade.
Ten years later, by then in full control of England, William determined to transform this simple fort into a massive palace-fortress. A great stone tower was built and at once entitled the Tower of London. Later, as the castle was enlarged around it, that name was to be given to the entire fortress, and the great central tower became known as the White Tower.
1.2 The Castle Enlarged
In 1189, while Richard I, the Lionheart, was away on crusade, his chancellor William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, began the first expansion of the Tower's defences. It was completed by Richard's brother John, who succeeded him in 1199. the bailey around the White Tower was almost doubled in area, and fortified with a new curtain wall and towers, and with a ditch beyond. Even so the Londoners were not to be deterred from joining John's enemies among the barons, and the King, having lost the city, had to agree to Magna Carta in 1215.
1.3 The Castle Transformed
John's son, Henry III (1216-1272), at first gave his attention to improving the Tower as a royal residence. Within the space between the White Tower and the river a splendid new palace took shape, supplanting the royal accommodation within the White Tower itself. As one of the palace amusements, Henry established a royal menagerie.
When Henry's lofty view of kingship brought him into dispute with his barons, he ordered a massive expansion of the Tower's defences. The area of the castle was again doubled, this time being extended on all three landward sides so that the White Tower now stood at its centre. The new curtain wall around the enlarged bailey was guarded by towers at regular intervals, and by a wide moat. Even then, Henry, like his father, had to submit for a time to an alliance of the Londoners and hostile barons and to surrender the Tower. « mai multe referate din Engleza