The geopolitical analysis of the 20th century - an overview
categorie: Stiinte Politice
Mackinder considered that for about 400 years, from the 15th to the 19th century, the world has been dominated by sea-powers, the only ones able to explore the world, to discover new territories and to control them by extending large colonial empires. He also thought that the 20th century would be the beginning of a new era in which global power is transferred to land empires.DOWNLOAD REFERAT
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Mackinder feared for the new era since the expansion of sea-power had incorporated the whole world into a single system, replacing the colonial expansion as a "safety-valve" with an increasingly competitive inter-state system. The idea of the world-system has been enlarged and theoretically sustained by a large number of economic and political analysts. One of the most powerful world-system theories was conceived by Immanuel Wallerstein in 1984.
The starting point of his theory is represented by international inequality, underdevelopment and dependency. His view is very critical, claiming that the prosperity of the developed countries in the world economy (USA, Europe, Japan) is based on underdevelopment of LDCs. The latter could not follow the previous historical experience of developed countries because their underdevelopment is a structural requirement for development elsewhere. The development of Europe and North America is dependent on the systematic underdevelopment of LDCs.
The fundamental conclusion is that development somewhere requires underdevelopment elsewhere. According to these assumptions, the entire world economy is to be seen as an evolving market system in which an economic hierarchy of states is a product of the long-wave economic cycles that dominate the dynamics of the system. The hierarchical world-system is made up of: a core represented by the USA, Canada, western Europe, Japan and Australia; a semi-periphery consisting of some Latin American countries, Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union, China, India and South Africa; and finally the periphery comprising the rest of the world. « mai multe referate din Stiinte Politice