Sibiu cultural capital of Europe
This is only partly correct. There is evidence that there were already colonists before this invitation. It seems that the theory that these early colonists were crusaders from the People's crusade looks more correct. The large group of Saxon settlers that arrived a century later absorbed these crusaders and from then on all these colonists were named Saxons. They founded villages and towns and ma[...]DOWNLOAD REFERAT
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The Hungarian king send in the Teutonic Knights to organize the defense and to built a series of fortresses. They successfully kept the Cumans away from Transylvania. The devastating Mongol invasion from 1241 forced the people to fortify their new homeland even better. The colonized land was then called Siebenburgen and also around this name there are some mysteries open.
Sibiu grew over the years to the best fortified town east of Vienna with at some places 7 rows of ring-walls. The town flourished as it was the border town between the Catholic Transylvania and the whole west and the Orthodox east. Thanks to its defense structure, the town was never captured. The history of the town was more or less similar with towns in the west. Guilds were created and trade flourished, not only for the town but also for the surrounding villages.
Once the political and administrative organization of the Saxons was structured, Sibiu becomes the head quarter of The Saxon University, coordinator of all German communities (16th-19th. c)When Transylvania was subdued by the Austrian - Hungarian, Sibiu becomes the capital of the Principality (1692 - 1791; 1849 - 1867). Sibiu's connections with the West and East of Europe generated it as an outstanding factor of culture and civilization.
Schools, libraries, hospitals, cultural societies raised its prestige. In 1791, after the edict giving the right to Romanians and Hungarians to settle down inside the walls of the city, Sibiu became one of the most important cultural and religious centers for the Romanians in Transylvania, playing an important role in accomplishing the unity of the Romanian national state (1st of December 1918).
The town grew around the initial lower town (Orasul de Jos) and around the Evangelic Church at the Huet Square in the upper town. After the damages caused by Tatars invasion (1241 - 1242), the survivors decided to reinforce the system of fortifications. During the 13th & 15th centuries, two fortified quarters develop in the Upper Town, including The Small Square and then The Large Square and a wide area on Cibin upper plateau. The lower town is also included in the fortification. The walls and portals of the town here reinforced with towers and bastions.
The whole fortified area in the 17th century is of 72 ha, Sibiu being the most powerful fortified city in Transylvania, compared to Vienna that had a fortified area of 92 ha.The length of the walls measured over 4 km. There were four strongly fortified gates - Cisnadie, Turn, Ocna and Gusterita - five bastions, five artillery platforms and 39 defense towers transformed the ancient medieval town into an almost unconquerable stronghold. « mai multe referate din Engleza