Pronumele - The Noun

2x puncte

categorie: Engleza

nota: 9.05

nivel: Gimnaziu

5.2. Forma pronumelui
Pronumele au forme specifice in functie de:
Numar: singular - this; plural - these
Caz: Nominativ - she; Genitiv - hers; Dativ - to her; Acuzativ - her
Gen: masculin - he; Feminin - she; neutru - it
Pronumele pot fi simple (you, which, many) sau compuse (everybody, whatever, no one).

5.3. Clasificarea pronumelor
Dupa co[...]
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5.2. Forma pronumelui
Pronumele au forme specifice in functie de:
Numar: singular - this; plural - these
Caz: Nominativ - she; Genitiv - hers; Dativ - to her; Acuzativ - her
Gen: masculin - he; Feminin - she; neutru - it
Pronumele pot fi simple (you, which, many) sau compuse (everybody, whatever, no one).

5.3. Clasificarea pronumelor
Dupa continut si functie pronumele pot fi:
Personale
Reflexive
Nehotarate
Demonstrative
Relative
De īntarire
Interogative
Reciproce

I se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula.
Its (pronume) nu are apostrof.
It's vine de la it is sau it has
Forme arhaice si poetice: pers. II sg. - thou, thine, (to) thee
I gave him the book.
He ran the London Marathon.
It's a pleasure to him.
I only played against her once.
These books are ours.
Is this pen yours or mine?
You / They impersonal - putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre oameni in general.
Ex.: You have to drive on the other side of the road in Great Britain.
They say she's very clever.
It - poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta:
It impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale, exprimand starea vremii, distante sau in contructii pasive)
Ex.: It's 7 o'clock.
It was spring.
Is it Monday?
How hot it is!
How far is it to the station?
It demostrativ
Ex.: Who is it? It's the postman.
It's the children.

5.3.2. Pronumele reflexive
Acestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana.
Forme:
Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.: I wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me.
She fell off the ladder and injured herself.
You can do thse tasks by yourself or with a partner.
After five minutes, it will automatically turn itself down.
Let's buy ourselves a chair for the garden.
They built the house themselves.

5.3.3. Pronumele nehotarate
Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate: anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything.
No poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody, no-one
Atat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana, pronumele nehotarate anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la singular si trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular.
Alte pronume nehotarate:
enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every, each, any, either, neither, none, some.
De retinut!
Daca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume, ci determinanti substantivali.
Ex.: Few will be chosen; fewer will finish.
Little is expected.

5.3.4. Pronumele demonstrativ
Pronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such pot functiona atat ca pronume, cat si ca determinanti substantivali.
Ex.: That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw)
I will never forget this. (referring to a recent experience)
Such is my belief. (referring to an explanation just made)
This si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala, pe cand that si those sugereaza ideea de departare.
Ex.: These (pancakes sitting here now on my plate) are delicious.
Those (pancakes that I had yesterday morning) were even better.
This (book in my hand) is well written; that (book that I'm pointing to, over there, on the table) is trash.
Aceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva:
Ex.: Are you going to wear these? (They are awful. I do not like them at all.)
Can you belive I would have bought that?

5.3.5. Pronumele relative
Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in contextul aterior (antecedent) si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent de propozitia continand substantivul determinat.
Pronumele relative sunt : who, whoever, which, that.
Ex.: The student who studies hardest usually does the best.
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