Pollution

2x puncte

categorie: Engleza

nota: 9.87

nivel: Liceu

Subject: Sources of Water Pollution
a)What are the sources of water pollution?
b)What are the effects of water pollution?
c)What are the ways we can take to decrease those problem?

...

ADDITIONAL FORMS OF WATER POLLUTION

Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of petroleum, radioactive substances, and heat. [...]
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Subject: Sources of Water Pollution
a)What are the sources of water pollution?
b)What are the effects of water pollution?
c)What are the ways we can take to decrease those problem?

...

ADDITIONAL FORMS OF WATER POLLUTION

Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of petroleum, radioactive substances, and heat. Petroleum often pollutes waterbodies in the form of oil, resulting from oil spills. The previously mentioned Exxon Valdez is an example of this type of water pollution.

These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important cause of pollution along shore lines. Besides the supertankers, off-shore drilling operations contribute a large share of pollution. One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every million tons of oil transported.

This is equal to about 0.0001 percent. Radioactive substances are produced in the form of waste from nuclear power plants, and from the industrial, medical, and scientific use of radioactive materials. Specific forms of waste are uranium and thorium mining and refining.

The last form of water pollution is heat. Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms. These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of cooling water by factories and power plants occGROUND WATER

Ninety-five percent of all fresh water on earth is ground water. Ground water is found in natural rock formations. These formations, called aquifers, are a vital natural resource with many uses. Nationally, 53% of the population relies on ground water as a source of drinking water.

In rural areas this figure is even higher. Eighty one percent of community water is dependent on ground water. Although the 1992 Section 305(b) State Water Quality Reports indicate that, overall, the Nation’s ground water quality is good to excellent, many local areas have experienced significant ground water contamination.
Some examples are leaking underground storage tanks and municipal landfills.

LEGISLATION

Several forms of legislation have been passed in recent decades to try to control water pollution. In 1970, the Clean Water Act provided 50 billion dollars to cities and states to build wastewater facilities.

This has helped control surface water pollution from industrial and municipal sources throughout the United States. When congress passed the Clean Water Act in 1972, states were given primary authority to set their own standards for their water.

In addition to these standards, the act required that all state beneficial uses and their criteria must comply with the “fishable and swimmable” goals of the act. This essentially means that state beneficial uses must be able to support aquatic life and recreational use. Because it is impossible to test water for every type of disease-causing organism, states usually look to identify indicator bacteria.

One for a example is a bacteria known as fecal coliforms.(Figure 1 shows the quality of water for each every state in the United States, click on the US link). These indicator bacteria suggest that a certain selection of water may be contaminated with untreated sewage and that other, more dangerous, organisms are present.

These legislations are an important part in the fight against water pollution. They are useful in preventing Envioronmental catastrophes. The graph shows reported pollution incidents since 1989-1994.

If stronger legislations existed, perhaps these events would never have occhave been passed in recent decades to try to control water pollution. In 1970, the Clean Water Act provided 50 billion dollars to cities and states to build wastewater facilities.

This has helped control surface water pollution from industrial and municipal sources throughout the United States. When congress passed the Clean Water Act in 1972, states were given primary authority to set their own standards for their water.

In addition to these standards, the act required that all state beneficial uses and their criteria must comply with the “fishable and swimmable” goals of the act. This essentially means that state beneficial uses must be able to support aquatic life and recreational use.

Because it is impossible to test water for every type of disease-causing organism, states usually look to identify indicator bacteria. One for a example is a bacteria known as fecal coliforms.(Figure 1 shows the quality of water for each every state in the United States, click on the US link).

These indicator bacteria suggest that a certain selection of water may be contaminated with untreated sewage and that other, more dangerous, organisms are present. These legislations are an important part in the fight against water pollution.

They are useful in preventing Envioronmental catastrophes. The graph shows reported pollution incidents since 1989-1994. If stronger legislations existed, perhaps these events would never have occurred. urred. urs.
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