Origin of zero

3x puncte

categorie: Engleza

nota: 9.19

nivel: Liceu

Zero’- the last major invention in the history of numbers is the result of a long and slow evolution. Unfortunately we do not have precise evidence of ‘zero origin’ and in most occasions we rely on assumptions based on Archaeology and historical events. It all started with the introduction of numbers, probably because of practical needs: how many days, goods, animals, children, e[...]
DOWNLOAD REFERAT

Preview referat: Origin of zero

Zero’- the last major invention in the history of numbers is the result of a long and slow evolution. Unfortunately we do not have precise evidence of ‘zero origin’ and in most occasions we rely on assumptions based on Archaeology and historical events. It all started with the introduction of numbers, probably because of practical needs: how many days, goods, animals, children, etc.

It is believed that from now it took place the invention of zero and it’s operational potential (well established on Brahmagupta’s book, written in 628, where positive numbers=fortune, negative=debts and zero is “sunya” (void, empty) or “kha”(nothing)
From here ‘zero’ migrated to Arab lands where the first important mathematician to make use of his positional relation was Muhammmad ibn Al-Khwarizmi(783-850 ) who made significant contributions to the popularisation of Indian numerals(incl. zero), calculation methods, algebra(“Al Jabr”) and algorithms (“Al-Khwarizmi”).

The Romans’s and the Greeks’s ‘additional system’ was incompatible with the Hindu-Arab ‘positional system’ so ‘zero’ penetrated after long time, because their intention was to impose religion and culture to the “infidels” of the Middle East.
The change was a long process, amongst the figures that had a significant contribution is Leonardo Fibonacci (of Pisa), an Italian mathematician that travelled to Near East and to North Africa (his father being a public scribe).

Fibonacci wrote a book called “Liber Abaci”(Book of Abacus) and the first chapter opens with: ”These are nine figure of the Indians: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 . With these nine figures and with this sign o which in arabic is called zephirum, any number can be written”
The Renaissance was a very prolific period and still at that time the status of zero represents “a source of confusion” as we can read in the manuscript: ”Triparty en la Science des nombres” by Nicolas Chuquet (1484): “the tenth (ref to 0)does not have or signify a value, and it is called cipher or nothing or figure of no value”

The main question in the fifteenth century was ‘Zero- nothing or something’. The French writers called zero “ a figure causing confusion and difficulty”, because it is usually regarded as nothing(3+0=3), but sometimes is something: 40000- the string of nothingness multiplies the 4 ten thousand times.
In today’s days is difficult to give in one idea the huge extent of ‘zero’ and seems “impossible without it”.
DOWNLOAD REFERAT
« mai multe referate din Engleza

CAUTA REFERAT


TRIMITE REFERAT CERE REFERAT
Referatele si lucrarile oferite de E-referate.ro au scop educativ si orientativ pentru cercetare academica.