Nationalism and culture
categorie: Stiinte Politice
A state is a political unit. In the modern international system, the entire inhabited world is divided into states. Boundaries are drawn in order to separate states. The right of each state to control the territory encompassed by its boundaries is recognized by the international community. Currently, the world political map includes approximately 200 states, but they contain persons who belong to [...]DOWNLOAD REFERAT
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In terms of the relation between state-nation, one can distinguish: states dominated by one nation (France, Japan) or by 2 or more large nations (Canada, Switzerland, Belgium, South Africa.
On the other hand, many nations are divided among two or more states (the Arabs, Kurds, Koreans). The lack of correspondence between national territories and state boundaries is an especially significant problem in less developed countries.
This failure results from the colonial history of these regions. Boundaries between colonies were drawn at conference tables in European capitals by diplomats with little or knowledge of local conditions, but to suit the convenience of the European colonial masters. This situation is especially evident in West Africa where tension between competing national groups remains characteristic even today.
The precise number of nations depends on definition.
Should nationality be determined by language, culture, religion or historic evolution? There is no straight answer to this question. Anyway, nationality is a rather vague expression of group identity, perhaps at the largest level after family, clan and tribe. Take the example of the people living now in Slovakia, but who during the 20th century have changed 5 times the nationality -of the Austro-Hungarian Empire till 1918, of Czechoslovakia after the WWI, of Hungary after 1938, of Czechoslovakia after the WWII and from 1993 of Slovakia. Meanwhile their identity remained unchanged.
The concept of nationality was born out of the European nation-state system, which emerged in the late Middle Ages. Much older is the term of nation, dating back to the biblical times, whereas the modern concept of nationalism has been defined only several hundred years ago.
Nationalism has been strengthened in the post Cold War world, due to the ending of the East-West clear-cut division and the more chaotic world coming into being after it.
Two trends seem to emerge at the end of the Cold War: on the one hand national identities from former multinational states such as USSR or Yugoslavia are calling out in force and resulting in conflict areas on the world stage; on the other hand supra-nationalism or the tendency to form alliances and political groups larger than national identities, continues and grows. This latter process can be seen in two different ways: as a normal evolution of national identities, taking the example of the Westphalian identity which has given way to the German one, and this one can give way to European. « mai multe referate din Stiinte Politice