McDonalds Corporation, fast-food restaurant company based in Oak Brook, Illinois. Since the 1950s, McDonalds family-oriented restaurants have revolutionized the fast-food business and the company has become one of the best known in the world. Thousands of McDonalds restaurants in countries around the world serve millions of customers a day. McDonalds restaurants, which offer toy promotions an[...]DOWNLOAD REFERAT
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In 1948 brothers Dick and Mac McDonald remodeled their McDonalds drive-in restaurant in San Bernardino, California, creating the prototype for the modern fast-food restaurant.
The menu was limited to nine items: hamburgers, cheeseburgers, three types of soft drinks, milk, coffee, potato chips, and pies. French fries and milkshakes were soon added. By focusing on efficient production and service, McDonalds cut the price of their hamburgers from 30 cents to 15 cents.
By the mid-1950s the original McDonalds generated $350,000 a year in revenues. In 1954 Ray Kroc, then a 52-year-old salesman of milkshake machines, visited the restaurant and became convinced that its concept could work in other cities. The McDonald brothers agreed to let Kroc sell McDonalds franchises (the right to market the companys products within a certain area). In 1955 Kroc established a franchising company known as McDonalds Systems, Inc. and opened a second McDonalds restaurant in Des Plaines, Illinois. Within its first four years, the company had opened 228 restaurants, which generated $37.6 million in annual sales. In 1961 Kroc bought out the McDonald brothers for $2.7 million.
During the 1960s, McDonalds began to mount aggressive advertising and marketing campaigns. In 1962 the company adopted the golden arches as its trademark. Ronald McDonald, the familiar clown that serves as McDonalds mascot, was introduced in 1963. That year, signs at McDonalds restaurants announced that the company had sold more than 1 billion hamburgers. In 1968 McDonalds restaurants began serving the Big Mac, a two-patty burger that became the companys flagship product. The company launched its highly successful "You deserve a break today" advertising campaign in 1970. By 1972 McDonalds had 2000 restaurants and $1 billion in annual sales.
McDonalds also began to establish high-profile charities. The company opened the first Ronald McDonald House in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1974. Ronald McDonald Houses provide temporary housing near hospitals for the families of seriously ill children. Today, Ronald McDonald House Charities operate more than 170 Ronald McDonald Houses in 13 countries.
Although McDonalds remained dedicated to its established format, the company introduced a number of new products and services in the 1970s and 1980s. Many of these innovations proved startlingly successful. McDonalds began serving breakfast in 1973. By the late 1980s, one-fourth of Americans who ate breakfast away from home did so at McDonalds. In 1975 McDonalds introduced drive-through window service, enabling motorists to make purchases without leaving their cars. By the mid-1990s, drive-through business accounted for about half of all McDonalds sales in the United States. In 1983 the company introduced Chicken McNuggets, bite-sized fried chicken morsels accompanied by dipping sauces. Within a few months McDonalds ranked as the worlds second largest retailer of chicken.
International expansion also became an important part of the companys business strategy. McDonalds opened its first restaurant outside the United States in 1967. In 1988 McDonalds operated 2600 stores outside the United States, generating $1.8 billion in annual revenues. By 1994 the company had 4700 international franchises, producing $3.4 billion in annual revenues. The first McDonalds in Moscow, Russia, served more than 30,000 customers on its first day of operation in 1990, setting the record for the most people served by one restaurant in a single day. In 1992 McDonalds opened a restaurant in Beijing, China. The Beijing McDonalds--which featured 700 seats, 2 kitchens, 29 cash registers, and 850 employees-is the companys largest. The Beijing McDonalds attracted 40,000 customers on its first day, breaking the record established by the Moscow McDonalds two years earlier.
McDonalds has attempted to accommodate increasing customer demand for healthier food. In 1986 McDonalds began offering nutritional information about the items on its menu. The company also began to offer lighter entrées, such as salads and frozen yogurt. McDonalds Arch Deluxe, a hamburger marketed to adults, generated disappointing sales when it was introduced in 1996.
In the mid-1990s the company earned about $1.4 billion a year in profits on $30 billion in sales and opened a new restaurant every three hours. The company has continued to grow in the United States by opening new restaurants in urban areas and establishing smaller outlets in hospitals, zoos, airports, and many other locations. In 1993 McDonalds began opening outlets in Wal-Mart Stores throughout the United States. In 1996 McDonalds signed a 10-year agreement with The Walt Disney Company.
Under the terms of the agreement, McDonalds will operate restaurants at Disney theme parks, and Disney will promote its films through McDonalds. In 1997 McDonalds announced a campaign to increase sales at its restaurants by cutting prices. « mai multe referate din Engleza