Mammography

3x puncte

categorie: Medicina

nota: 9.60

nivel: Facultate

Many people are concerned about the exposure to x-rays, and rightly so, but the level of radiation in up-to-date mammograms does not significantly increase the risk for breast cancer. To put dose into perspective, a woman who receives radiation as a treatment for breast cancer will receive several thousand rads. If a woman had yearly mammograms beginning at age 40 and continuing until 90, she will[...]
DOWNLOAD REFERAT

Preview referat: Mammography

Many people are concerned about the exposure to x-rays, and rightly so, but the level of radiation in up-to-date mammograms does not significantly increase the risk for breast cancer. To put dose into perspective, a woman who receives radiation as a treatment for breast cancer will receive several thousand rads. If a woman had yearly mammograms beginning at age 40 and continuing until 90, she will have received 10 rads.

In order to perform a mammogram, the breast is compressed to flatten and spread the tissue. Although this may be temporarily uncomfortable, it is necessary in order to produce a good mammogram. The compression only lasts a few seconds, and the entire procedure for screening mammography takes about 20 minutes. This procedure produces a black and white image of the breast tissue on a large sheet of film that is "read," or interpreted, by a radiologist.

The physician reading the films will look for several types of changes. Screening mammography usually involves two views (x-ray pictures) of each breast. For some patients, such as women with breast implants, additional pictures may be needed to include as much breast tissue as possible. Women who are breast-feeding can still get mammograms. They can express their breast milk before the mammogram.

The x-ray machine for mammography
Calcifications are tiny mineral deposits within the breast tissue which appears as small white spots on the films. Calcifications are divided into two categories, macrocalcifications and microcalcifications. Macrocalcifications are coarse (larger) calcium deposits that most likely represent degenerative changes in the breasts, such as aging of the breast arteries, old injuries, or inflammations. These deposits are associated with benign (noncancerous) conditions and do not require a biopsy. Macrocalcifications are found in about 50 % of women over the age of 50, and in about 10 % of women under the age of 50.

Microcalcifications are tiny (less than 1/50 of an inch) specks of calcium in the breast. An area of microcalcification that is seen on a mammogram does not always mean that cancer is present. They may appear singly or in clusters. The shape and arrangement of microcalcifications help the radiologist judge the likelihood of cancer being present. In some cases, the microcalcifications do not even indicate a need for a biopsy. Instead, a doctor may advise a follow-up mammogram within 3 to 6 months. In other cases, the microcalcifications are more suspicious and a biopsy is recommended.

Another important change that can be seen on a mammogram is a mass, which may occur with or without calcifications. Masses can be due to many things, including cysts and fibroadenomas, but may be cancer and usually should be biopsied if they are not fluid-filled cysts. A cyst, which is a benign collection of fluid in the breast, cannot be diagnosed by physical exam alone, nor can it be diagnosed by mammography alone.

Either breast ultrasound, or removal of the fluid with a needle (aspiration), is used to confirm that a mass is a cyst. If a mass is not a cyst, then further imaging may be obtained. As with calcifications, a mass can be caused by benign breast conditions, or by breast cancer. Some masses can be monitored with periodic mammograms, while others may require immediate or delayed biopsy.
DOWNLOAD REFERAT
« mai multe referate din Medicina

CAUTA REFERAT


TRIMITE REFERAT CERE REFERAT
Referatele si lucrarile oferite de E-referate.ro au scop educativ si orientativ pentru cercetare academica.