Hollywood

7x puncte

categorie: Engleza

nota: 10.00

nivel: Facultate

Referat despre Hollywood
Chapter I - Let’s call it “Hollywood”

"Hollywood" name made its way from an Easter summer home to a Cahuenga Valley ranch. The name Hollywood predated the arrival of movies.

In the middle of a sun-drenched nowhere, a sober, God-fearing man and woman settled in to create a like-minded community. Harvey Henderson Wilco[...]
DOWNLOAD REFERAT

Preview referat: Hollywood

Referat despre Hollywood
Chapter I - Let’s call it “Hollywood”

"Hollywood" name made its way from an Easter summer home to a Cahuenga Valley ranch. The name Hollywood predated the arrival of movies.

In the middle of a sun-drenched nowhere, a sober, God-fearing man and woman settled in to create a like-minded community. Harvey Henderson Wilcox of Kansas, who made a fortune in real estate even though he had lost the use of his legs due to typhoid fever, and his wife, Daeida, moved to Los Angeles from Topeka in 1883. In 1886, Wilcox bought 160 acres (0.6 kmē) of land in the countryside to the west of the city at the foothills, in the Cahuenga Valley at, what is now, Hollywood Blvd. and Cahuenga Ave. He thought it would be a perfect site for a community that would reflect his conservative beliefs, and he built his house smack in the middle of a fig orchard.

Accounts of the name, Hollywood, coming from imported English holly then growing in the area are incorrect. The name in fact was coined by Daeida Wilcox (1861–1914) who traveled by train to her old home in the east. On the train, Mrs. Wilcox met a woman who described her summer home in Ohio named after a settlement of Dutch immigrants from Zwolle called "Hollywood”. Daeida was so enamored with the name that she "borrowed" it for her ranch in the Cahuenga Valley; when she returned home she prevailed on her husband to name their property Hollywood. With that simple exchange, one of the most famous towns in the world got its name.

Harvey Wilcox soon drew up a grid map for a town, which he filed with the county recorder's office on February 1, 1887, the first official appearance of the name Hollywood. With his wife as a constant advisor, he carved out Prospect Avenue (later Hollywood Boulevard) for the main street, lining it and the other wide dirt avenues with pepper trees, and began selling lots. Daeida raised money to build two churches, a school and a library. They imported some English holly because of the name Hollywood, but the bushes did not last.

By 1900, Hollywood also had a post office, a newspaper, a hotel and two markets, along with a population of 500 people. Los Angeles, with a population of 100,000 people at the time, lay seven miles (11 km) east through the citrus groves. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from Los Angeles, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours.

Shortly after the turn of the century, the residents of the Cahuenga Valley were faced with three pressing problems. The streets were not getting the attention in proportion to the tax being levied by the county; a lack of school facilities and a growing sentiment for prohibition.

In August, 1903, a petition was submitted to the Los Angeles Board of Supervisors requesting the incorporation of the City of Hollywood. The election for city hood was held on November 14, 1903 with voting lasting until 5:00 PM. After all the ballots were counted, the vote was eighty-eight for incorporation and seventy-seven against. Hollywood became a city of the sixth class with geographic boundaries extending from Normandie on the east, to Fairfax on the west, and from the top of the Santa Monica Mountains on the north to DeLongpre and Fountain avenues on the south.

Hollywood's first laws paint a telling portrait of the culture in those early days. Liquor was prohibited except as a medical prescription; bicycles and velocipedes were prohibited on sidewalks; and horses, cattle and mules were no to be driven through Hollywood streets in herds of more than 200. Herds of more than 2000 hogs or sheep were banned if unattended by a "competent man". Hardly the live-it-up tinsel town it would become in two short decades...

In 1904, a new trolley car track running from Los Angeles to Hollywood up Prospect Avenue was opened. The system was called "the Hollywood boulevard." It cut travel time to and from Los Angeles drastically.

City hood for Hollywood only lasted six years. Hollywood’s population had grown too rapidly for the then existing water and municipal facilities. Annexation to the City of Los Angeles would assure the burgeoning community of adequate water, sewage and municipal services. The election, held in 1910, was an overwhelming victory for annexation. Hollywood became part of Los Angeles.

Real estate developers were tempting Easterners to Hollywood with promises of sun, wide boulevards and palatial homes. Elaborate rail lines crisscrossed the Cahuenga Valley. Hotels, schools, churches and extravagant residences popped up. But Hollywood remained basically a sleepy town, with no inkling of what was so soon to come.

Chapter I-Lights…Camera…Action
The first "film people" arrived in Hollywood in 1907. Word of Hollywood's film-friendly climate spread like wildfire. That and lawsuits brought by Thomas Edison against film bootleggers spurred an almost-overnight exodus from New York. Hollywood, the film capital, was born.

In the first decade of the 20th century, "movies" were like an irrepressible toddler. What may now seem a rather rudimentary product created a sensation: viewers were mesmerized by these pictures that moved.

The short dramas and comedies came from a number of production companies. In 1908, Thomas Edison, irate that others were horning in on "his" movie inventions but aware that compromise was his only option, united the 10 biggest operations from New York as "the Trust." These 10 would control distribution, exhibition, pricing and everything else — in short, a monopoly. But in this wild and woolly time, independent distributors and exhibitors formed their own organization to fight back. Many of these freelancers migrated west to the Los Angeles area. For one thing, it was as far as you could get from New York, and although there were Trust members in California, the muscle was back East. And also, L.A., as it happened, was perfect for filmmaking. A great majority of the early flicks had been shot indoors, to satisfy lighting and temperature requirements. Hollywood, with its ready labor market, mild climate and nonstop sunshine, opened the way to outdoor shooting, while providing an unrivaled variety of settings — mountains, deserts, beaches, villages and urban L.A.

All was quiet on the western front when David Horsley from New Jersey arrived in Hollywood on a fateful winter day in 1907. He purchased the Blondeau Tavern on Sunset Boulevard. There, he hung out Hollywood’s first real studio, the Nestor Film Company. Before the year was out, 15 other firms had set up shop nearby.

By 1912, rumors of Hollywood's ideal climate and varied locations had spread, and 20 different film companies were shooting all around Hollywood. The reliable weather was great because although electric lights existed at that time, none were powerful enough to adequately expose film; the best source of illumination for movie production was natural sunlight.

But it wasn't just sunny skies that spurred a mass film migration from New York to Hollywood. In 1897, Thomas Edison had begun suing independent producers who had illegally adopted his film technology. At the time, Edison owned almost all of the patents relevant to motion picture production and, in the East, movie producers acting independently of Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company were often sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents. If Edison sent agents to California, word would usually reach Hollywood before the agents' arrival and the movie makers could simply escape to nearby Mexico.
DOWNLOAD REFERAT
« mai multe referate din Engleza

CAUTA REFERAT

TRIMITE REFERAT CERE REFERAT
Referatele si lucrarile oferite de E-referate.ro au scop educativ si orientativ pentru cercetare academica.