History, Colonialism, and the Themes of the Nation

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categorie: Engleza

nota: 10.00

nivel: Facultate

• This poem survives in only one manuscript, Harley MS 913, British Library, London.
• Probably compiled in Ireland in the early-mid 1300s, The Land of Cokaygne is not an isolated poem; its fictional and parodic otherworld belongs to a tradition of poems dealing with an imaginary paradise where leisure rules and food is readily available.
• Classical: going back to[...]
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• This poem survives in only one manuscript, Harley MS 913, British Library, London.
• Probably compiled in Ireland in the early-mid 1300s, The Land of Cokaygne is not an isolated poem; its fictional and parodic otherworld belongs to a tradition of poems dealing with an imaginary paradise where leisure rules and food is readily available.
• Classical: going back to Lucian's True History, a Greek work of the second century AD, that describes a comical paradise full of food, drink, and loose women.

• Christian: descriptions of both Heaven and the garden of Eden (which was seen as a real, though remote, place on earth). Believed visited by Alexander the Great, it often was placed far to the East.
• Goliardic: one Latin poem of the twelfth century (Carmina Burana 222) is spoken by an abbas Cucaniensis, an 'abbot of Cockaygne' who presides over drinking and gambling, and the descriptions of the two abbeys in Cockaygne, which invert the usual norms of religious life.

• The fantastic descriptions of plenteous food may be compared to those in The Vision of MacConglinne, a parody of the medieval vision and voyage tales, which also mocks the conventions of heroic literature and the institutions of Church and State. Influenced by goliardic satire, the tale was composed in the 12th century.The Danta Gradha is an Irish adaptation of the Courtly love poetry.
• Courtly love was a medieval European conception of ennobling love which found its genesis in the ducal and princely courts in southern France at the end of the eleventh century.

In essence, courtly love was a contradictory experience between erotic desire and spiritual attainment, "a love at once illicit and morally elevating, passionate and self-disciplined, humiliating and exalting, human and transcendent."
Gerald Fitzgerald, the 4th Earl of Desmond (1333-1398) was the first to adapt the courtly love tradition of the Norman French to the Irish. In the poetry of courtly love, the love of woman is exalted, a redemptive force for both the lover and his beloved. Gerald's poem is a rebuttal of the fierce clerical misogyny that was prevalent in the Middle Ages:
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