Globalisation

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categorie: Engleza

nota: 9.04

nivel: Liceu

There are many different definitions of globalisation, but most acknowledge the greater movement of people, goods, capital and ideas due to increased economic integration which in turn is propelled by increased trade and investment. It is like moving towards living in a borderless world.

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2. BENEFITS OF GLOBALISATION:

1) Economies of countries that[...]
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There are many different definitions of globalisation, but most acknowledge the greater movement of people, goods, capital and ideas due to increased economic integration which in turn is propelled by increased trade and investment. It is like moving towards living in a borderless world.

...

2. BENEFITS OF GLOBALISATION:

1) Economies of countries that engage well with the international economy have consistently grown much faster than those countries that try to protect themselves. Well managed open economies have grown at rates that are on average 2 ½ percentage points higher than the rate of growth in economies closed to the forces of globalization.

2) Countries which have had faster economic growth have then been able to improve living standards and reduce poverty. India has cut its poverty rate in half in the past two decades. China has reduced the number of rural poor from 250 million in 1978 to 34 million in 1999. Cheaper imports also make a wider range of products accessible to more people and, through competition, can help promote efficiency and productivity.

3)Improved wealth through the economic gains of globlisation has led to improved access to health care and clean water which has increased life expectancy. More than 85 percent of the world's population can expect to live for at least sixty years (that's twice as long as the average life expectancy 100 years ago!)

4)Increased global income and reduced investment barriers have led to an increase in foreign direct investment which has accelerated growth in many countries. In 1975, total foreign direct investment amounted to US$23 billion while in 2003 it totalled US$575 billion.

5)Improved environmental awareness and accountability has contributed to positive environmental outcomes by encouraging the use of more efficient, less-polluting technologies and facilitating economies' imports of renewable substitutes for use in place of scarce domestic natural resources.

6)The voluntary adoption by global companies of workplace standards for their internationalised production facilities in developing countries has made an important contribution to respect for international labour standards. Wages paid by multinationals in middle- and low-income countries are on average 1.8 to 2.0 times the average wages in those countries.

7)Modern communications and the global spread of information have contributed to the toppling of undemocratic regimes and a growth in liberal democracies around the world.

8)International migration has led to greater recognition of diversity and respect for cultural identities which is improving democracy and access to human rights.

3. PROBLEMS OF GLOBALISATION:

1)There are social and economic costs to globalisation. Trade liberalisation rewards competitive industries and penalises uncompetitive ones, and it requires participating countries to undertake economic restructuring and reform. While this will bring benefits in the long term, there are dislocation costs to grapple with in the immediate term, and the social costs for those affected are high.

2)Some countries have been unable to take advantage of globalisation and their standards of living are dropping further behind the richest countries. The gap in incomes between the 20% of the richest and the poorest countries has grown from 30 to 1 in 1960 to 82 to 1 in 1995.

3)The increasing interdependence of countries in a globalised world makes them more vulnerable to economic problems like the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990's.

4)Increased trade and travel have facilitated the spread of human, animal and plant diseases, like HIV/AIDS, SARS and bird flu, across borders. The AIDS crisis has reduced life expectancy in some parts of Africa to less than 33 years and delays in addressing the problems, caused by economic pressures, have exacerbated the situation.

Globalisation has also enabled the introduction of cigarettes and tobacco to developing countries, with major adverse health and financial costs associated with that.

5)The environment has been harmed as agricultural, forest, mining and fishing industries exploit inadequate environmental codes and corrupt behaviour in developing countries. Agricultural seed companies are destroying the biodiversity of the planet, and depriving subsistence farmers of their livelihood.

6)The major economic powers have a major influence in the institutions of globalisation, like the WTO, and this can work against the interests of the developing world. The level of agricultural protection by rich countries has also been estimated to be around five times what they provide in aid to poor countries

7)Globalised competition can force a 'race to the bottom' in wage rates and labour standards. It can also foster a 'brain drain' of skilled workers, where highly educated and qualified professionals, such as doctors, engineers and IT specialists, migrate to developed countries to benefit from the higher wages and greater career and lifestyle prospects. This creates severe skilled labour shortages in developing countries.

8)Trade liberalisation and technological improvements change the economy of a country, destroying traditional agricultural communities and allowing cheap imports of manufactured goods. This can lead to unemployment if not carefully managed, as work in the traditional sectors of the economy becomes scarce and people may not have the appropriate skills for the jobs which may be created.
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