The word “freedom” is full of ambiguities. An unemployed man is free, because he is not restricted to behave in a certain way by the schedule of a factory, job, or the burden of daily servitutes. An unemployed man is, still, a slave because he is submitted to restrictions of misery, or the restrictions that his needs impose on him. So he is free to look for and find a job, but his emp[...]DOWNLOAD REFERAT
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The philosophy of necessity ( stoical philosophy or Spinoza’s system) states that man is a were element of the cosmic world, a small part determined by the whole. According to it, freedom is an attribute of necessity: hormones and chemical changes determine our behaviour; our childhood gives reasons for our adult behaviour; Sociology explains our actions by our social and educational background.
That is why there is an universal determination of our actions ( of biological, psychological and sociological inspiration).
This concept, in the light of stoical of Spinozian philosophy, means that, if we want to be free, it is sufficient to consent to necessity; freedom means submission to the divine necessity, adopting determinism willingly means being free.
Men’s actions seem strange because they depend on our wishes and, equally, on external causes. We are weak and afraid of what might happen to us, we are initially slaves, literally, because our actions are not reflections of our own will.
People often commit suicide because they feel they have failed, even if our most ardent wish is to survive. Also, the mean person obsessed by gold deprines himself of the most elementary goods, forgelting that gold has the only advantage of satisfying our needs.
This originary servitude of the human coardition may be converted into freedom by man’s actions depending an his own internal nature and not on external causes.
More concretely, Spinoza proposes a solution called “of ancient wisdom”: to be free in the universe, we need to accept the universe. We break free if we accept what is happening to us. Everything that happens to us is necessary and if something bad happens to me, I am completely free from sufference and I will feel relieved from my sufference exactly because I will have understood the nature of this necessity.
So, freedom could be reduced to modern rationalism resignation in front of the divine will.
In contrast with this stoical attitude (we do not attend an examination because we know we will fail it), the 20th century states that: we are free not when we take action without a reason, but when we do what we satisfy our most profound tendencies. In other words, when we think free , we think with our own mind, without outer constraints.
The free action is the most profoundly thought over action, the most profoundly mativated. The free action is considered, according to modern rationalism, as an modern rationalism, as an intelligent solution to a problem.
Accordingly, freedom is not inborn, not something that characterized human nature, but something that is conquered, the result of a liberation of some kind. It is something that should be done, probably an original solution to a problem I am confrunted with.
Moreover, a free action is not only an action that solves a problem raised by our relationship with the others, but it underlines the problem of freedom of the human being in connection with the world.
The 20th century is no longer the 17th century, when man was crushed by the universe. At the beginning of its history, man is the slave of the universe, being “estranged” in a hostile world. In the long run, man has progressively conquered the forces of the universe, becoming a master instead of a slave. Man will learn the laws of the universal determinism and will use these laws for his benefit. That is why the apprehension and the use of necessity will be the instrument of the liberation of Man.
Nevertheless, one should not reduce the triumph of man to mastering nature by technical and scientifical means. It is true that technique and technology frees man from nature. « mai multe referate din Engleza