Canada

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categorie: Engleza

nota: 9.22

nivel: Liceu

THE LAND AND RESOURCES

Physical Regions

Canadahas six major physical, or physiographc, regions: the CANADIAN SHIELD, the Artic Island, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachian Region, the Interior Plains, and the Cordilleran Region.

Climate

The populated southern areas of Canada have a wide variety of temperate c[...]
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THE LAND AND RESOURCES

Physical Regions

Canadahas six major physical, or physiographc, regions: the CANADIAN SHIELD, the Artic Island, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachian Region, the Interior Plains, and the Cordilleran Region.

Climate

The populated southern areas of Canada have a wide variety of temperate climates. The Pacific coastal areas have a temperate marine west coast type of climate, with cool summers in the 16 deg-18 deg C ( 60deg- 65deg F) range and mild wintwrs in the 0 deg-4 deg C ( 32 deg – 39 deg F ) range. The interior plains have a middle- latitude steppe-type climate in the drier southern section and a more humid and extreme continental type of climate elsewhere. Temperatures winters and 18 deg- 20 deg to 25 deg C (-5 deg to +5 deg F) in long winters and 18 deg- 20 deg C (65 deg- 68 deg F) in short summers.

The Great Lakes- St. Lawrence Lowlands and the Appalachian Region have a more humid version of a continental type of climate. Both areas have a long, cold winter, with January averages about -10 deg C (14 deg F) in the eastern sections and -4 deg C(25 deg F) in the Ontario Pininsula, and short, warm summer with average temperatures of near 20 deg C (68 deg F).

Precipitation is heaviest in the west. Where moisture –laden winds from the Pacific Ocean are forced to rise over the mountainous coastal regions and bring more than 5,000 mm (195 in) of rain a year to some areas, although average annual precipitation is 1,525 to 2,540 mm (60 to 100 in). Precipitation is least in the Interior Plains, where many areas receive less than 500 mm (20 in) a year. Except for the low- lying Pacific coast areas, winter precipitation throughout Canada is usually in the form of snow, and thick blankets of accumulated snow cover most of Canada east of Rockies for 3 to 6 months of the year.

The sparsely settled northern areas have an artic, or tundra, type of climate on the island and northern coastal areas and a subartic type of climate in the vast transitional area between the frozen north and the settled south. The artic type of climate is characterized by lonc, very cold winters, with average temperatures higher than 10 deg C (50 deg F) . In the subartic areas, winters are similarly long and bitterly cold, but summers are warm enough (more than 10 deg C/50 deg F) to support vegetation growth. Precipitation is generally light in the western areas of the arctic and subartic regions and heavier in nortern Quebec and Labrador. Despite the low precipitation. Snow covers the groumd permanently for more than 6 months of everi year.

The people

The great majority of Canadians were born in Canada, and mst are of Eurupean descent. The ethnic composition of the population today is the result of successive waves of immigration by various European national groups in the past.

Composition of the Population

French Canadians accound for about 27% of the total population and are heavily concentrated in the province of Quebec. Where they are about 80% of the population, and in New Brunswick. Where they constitute about a third of the population.

The British settled primarily in the Atlantic provinces and in Ontario and later in British Columbia. They remain a major element in the population of these regions today, although the proportion of the British ethnic group in Canada as a whole has declined steadily from 57% in 1901 to about 40% in 1986.

The principal continental European groups are Germans, Italians, Ukrainians, Scandinavians, Dutch, and Poles. Indigenous Indians and Eskimos (Inuit) accound for a small percentage of the total population but are a major element in the north, where they accound for a majority of the population in the Northwest Territories and a significant population in the Yukon.

Language

Canada has two official languages, Eglish and French, which have equal status in affairs of the federal and provincial government and federal courts. Of the total population, more than 60% speak only English and significant minorities speak only French or are bilingual. A few speak neither language. The majority of new immigrants prefer to learn English rather than French and to enroll their children in schools in which the language of instruction is English.

Economic Activity

During the last 75 years, the Canadian economy has bees transformed from one based primarily on agricultural production and the export of agricultural products and raw materials to one based primarily on manufacturing and sefvice sectors, as well as a sector of continuing importance.
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