The present Clock Tower - metonymically referred to as Big Ben, and historically confused with St Stephen's Tower - was raised as a part of Charles Barry's design for a new palace, after the old Palace of Westminster was largely destroyed by fire on the night of 16 October 1834. The new Parliament was built in a Neo-gothic style. Although Barry was the chief architect of the Palace, he turned to A[...]DOWNLOAD REFERAT
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The design for the Clock Tower was Pugin's last design before his final descent into madness and death, and Pugin himself wrote, at the time of Barry's last visit to him to collect the drawings: "I never worked so hard in my life for Mr Barry for tomorrow I render all the designs for finishing his bell tower & it is beautiful." The tower is designed in Pugin's celebrated Gothic Revivalstyle, and is 316 feet (96.3 m) high (roughly 16 storeys).
The bottom 200 feet (61 m) of the Clock Tower's structure consists of brickwork with sand coloured Anston limestone cladding. The remainder of the tower's height is a framed spire of cast iron. The tower is founded on a 49-foot (15 m) square raft, made of 9.8-foot (3 m) thick concrete, at a depth of 13 feet (4 m) below ground level. The four clock dials are 180 feet (55 m) above ground. The interior volume of the tower is 164,200 cubic feet (4,650 cubic metres).
Despite being one of the world's most famous tourist attractions, the interior of the tower is not open to overseas visitors, though United Kingdom residents are able to arrange tours (well in advance) through their Member of Parliament.[ However, the tower has no lift, so those escorted must climb the 334 limestone stairs to the top.
Due to changes in ground conditions since construction (notably tunnelling for the Jubilee Line extension), the tower leans slightly to the north-west, by roughly 8.66 in (220 millimetres) at the clock dials, giving an inclination of approximately 1/250. « mai multe referate din Geografie