Synonymy and antonymy
Without favoring the hair-splitting terminological distinctions, Lyons (1986: 51) insists upon the importance of (a) not c[...]
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Without favoring the hair-splitting terminological distinctions, Lyons (1986: 51) insists upon the importance of (a) not confusing near synonymy with partial synonymy and (b) not making the assumptions that failure to satisfy one of the conditions of absolute synonymy necessarily involves the failure to satisfy either or both of the other conditions.
To exemplify the first condition required by absolute synonymy or full synonymy (i.e. same range of meanings) we will consider the pair big-large, where the former term has at least one meaning that it does not share with the latter one. If we compare the sentence "I will tell my big sister" with "I will tell my large sister "we notice that the polysemy of big does not perfectly overlap with the meaning of large. The second condition for absolute synonymy, i.e. interchangeability of terms in all contexts (total synonymy) refers to the collocational range of an expression (the set of contexts in which it can occur).
For example, the members in the pairs busy-occupied, decoration-ornamentation, liberty -freedom do not always have the same collocational range. There are many contexts in which they are not interchangeable without violating the collocational restrictions of the one or of the other. For instance, freedom cannot be substituted for liberty in 'You are at liberty to say what you want'.
Concerning the third condition for absolute synonymy, i.e. identity/similarity of all dimensions of meaning (complete synonymy), Lyons (1986: 55) distinguishes descriptive synonymy and expressive synonymy. Two expressions are descriptively synonymous, i.e. they have the same descriptive propositional/cognitive/referential meaning in and only if statements containing the other and vice versa. For example, big can be substituted for large in 'I live in a big house'. « mai multe referate din Engleza