Hierarchical sense relations - hyponymy and meronymy
Hyponymy is one of the most fundamental paradigmatic relations, corresponding to the inclusion of one class in another. For example, terms such as[...]
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Hyponymy is one of the most fundamental paradigmatic relations, corresponding to the inclusion of one class in another. For example, terms such as daisy, daffodil and rose all contain the meaning of flower. That is to say, they are all hyponyms of flower.
The set of terms which are hyponyms of the same superordinate term are co-hyponyms, for example, red, black and yellow, in the colour system, or ox, bull, calf that are covered by the superordinate term cattle.
Another way of describing the relationship is to say that the individual colours are sisters of the parent term colour or sisters of the parent term cattle.
A hyponym is a word that is more specific (less general), which has more elements of meaning and is more marked than its superordinate. For example, it can be marked for age (puppy, kitten, calf, piglet, duckling and cygnet are marked, while dog, cat, cow, pig, duck, swan are unmarked) or for sex (bitch, drake, bull, hog, sow, cob, pen are marked, while dog, duck, cow, pig, swan are unmarked). Hence, we can define hyponyms in terms of the hypernym plus a single feature, as in stallion='male horse', kitten='young cat'.
The more general term with reference to which the subordinate term can be defined, as is the usual practice in dictionary definitions ('a cat is a type of animal...') is called the superordinate or hypernym. Sometimes a word may be superordinate to itself in another sense. This is the case with animal, as shown in the figure below. The first occurrence, opposed to vegetable, is the sense contained in the phrase 'the animal kingdom'. « mai multe referate din Engleza