Engleza - sintaxa
1. The substitution test: NPs are [...]
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1. The substitution test: NPs are syntactic units or constituents because they can be replaced by an element such as they, it, do so. It is the same for VPs, PPs, etc.
• The transformational analysis of passives makes use of both deep structure and surface structure. In order to account for thematic role assignment, the NP that receives the theme role occurs as complement of the verb in deep structure while the NP that receives the agent role, if present occurs as complement of the special preposition 'by'.
A transformation then moves the NP bearing the theme role from its deep structure position to the subject position in surface structure, giving the correct final form of the sentence. E.g. The report was written by the students. (the agent role is suppressed or appears as complement of the preposition 'by'; the preposition 'by' assigns its agent role to its complement 'the students'):
 ADJECTIVE = (A) A lexical category that designates a property that is applicable to the entities named by nouns, can often take comparative and superlative endings in English, and functions as the head of an adjective phrase (e.g. red, obese, hearty).
 ADVERB = (Adv.) A lexical category that typically names properties that can be applied to the actions designated by verbs (e.g. quickly, fearfully). AGENT = The thematic role of the doer of the action designated by the verb (e.g. Mary in Mary fed the cat).
 ARGUMENT = A NP which is syntactically a grammatical dependent of a verb and about which semantically the verb says something (e.g. Her friends showed the inspector her letters).
 AUXILIARY VERB = A functional category that serves as the specifier of a verb (e.g. was in was talking).
 COMPLEMENT = The element or elements for which a head is subcategorised and which provide information about entities and locations whose existence is implied by the meaning of the head (e.g. the book in bought the book). « mai multe referate din Engleza